A critical analysis of the great and general courts of massachusetts reforms of juvenile justice sys
Juvenile crime contemporary methods of punishment and their effectiveness
A demographic breakdown of youth involved in juvenile court in the United States. Adjudication and Disposition The adjudicatory hearing is similar to a trial in criminal court. If the waiver is presumptive under the statute upon proof of probable cause and previous delinquency, the burden of proof may shift to the youth to prove that he or she is amenable to treatment in the juvenile justice system National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges, It also means that the available measures of juvenile crime are affected by law enforcement resources. It is reported that 19 juvenile offenders were executed in the USA between and Programs that promote dialogue between victim and offender demonstrate the highest rates of victim satisfaction and offender accountability. The FBI creates one national arrest estimate for each major offense by taking the total number of arrests reported in each offense category and weighting the number to represent the national population see Federal Bureau of Investigation, , Table If the court finds probable cause, a second decision involves whether the court will retain jurisdiction or transfer the case. In Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice: — This era was characterized by distinctly harsh punishments for youths. The committee recognizes that the Fourth Amendment and general respect for individual privacy substantially limits the detection of drug and weapons offenses and that arrests will and should necessarily be limited. Other state findings reflect inadequate legal representation, with states reporting limited contact with juvenile clients, failure to perform necessary background investigations, and a lack of training Mlyniec, Youth justice in an age of austerity.
Who counts as juvenile? This gap is reflected in findings relating to access to counsel e. To date, there are more than youth courts in the United States.
Finally, most juvenile courts allow young offenders to waive those rights; others have been noted for their aggressiveness in encouraging waivers Binder et al. The combined effect of these factors can be profound. Nonetheless, access to counsel and the quality of legal representation for youth appear to be uneven and haphazard Puritz et al.
The s through the s saw a rise in attention to and speculation about juvenile delinquency, as well as concern about the court system as a social issue. Although informality was championed as a particular benefit, in the s substantial concerns arose about due process and the protection of the legal rights of minors.
Figure 1 shows that the majority of states consider crimes committed through age 17 as juvenile offenses. References 1.
It can be a potentially problematic term, and in some contexts can strike a pejorative tone with misleading negative assumptions. Juvenile offenders are known for their difficulty to engage in rehabilitative services, therefore further investigation of the effectiveness of motivational interviewing in encouraging engagement is warranted.
Other states operate juvenile courts within a single, statewide structure of limited jurisdiction courts. Findings highlight the paucity of research specific to transition age youth.
based on 90 review