Briefly write about glow-discharge atomization reaction

atomic absorption spectroscopy instrumentation

Multi-element lamps are available with combinations of compounds of the target elements pressed in the cathode. The DC-bias is the result of an alternating current waveform that is centered about negative potential; as such it more or less represent the average potential residing on the sample surface.

briefly write about glow-discharge atomization reaction

Fuels and Oxidants The table shown lists the most common fuels and oxidants used to produce flames for AAS. These ions, under the influence of the electric field, are accelerated into the cathode surface containing the sample, bombarding the sample and causing neutral sample atom ejection through the process known as sputtering.

atomic absorption spectroscopy procedure

Instead, atomic emission and mass spectrometry are usually used. Glow discharges may also be operated in radio-frequency.

Atomic absorption spectroscopy ppt

Atomic Absorption Spectrometers can feature as few as hollow cathode lamp positions or in automated multi-element spectrometers, a lamp positions may be typically available. Instead, atomic emission and mass spectrometry are usually used. The anode layer has a negative space charge and a moderate electric field. For all of the regions to be noticeable the anode-cathode distance must be of sufficient length. Absorption is measured above the heated surface where the sample was atomized. The pressure and voltage may be held constant while the current is allowed to vary. Other atomizers, such as glow-discharge atomization, hydride atomization, or cold-vapor atomization might be used for special purposes. Detection limits for this technique are in the parts-per-billion range making it an excellent mercury detection atomization method. These excited atoms quickly fall back to the ground state, emitting light at a wavelength corresponding to the difference between the energy bands of the atoms.

Negative glow[ edit ] The ionization in the cathode dark space results in a high electron density, but slower electrons, making it easier for the electrons to recombine with positive ions, leading to intense light, through a process called bremsstrahlung radiation.

For example, neon signs have hollow cathodes designed to minimize sputtering, and contain charcoal to continuously remove undesired ions and atoms. During the atomization process, the sample is freed into atoms by heat, releasing the sample from the hydride compound.

How does atomic absorption spectroscopy work

For example, conditions current, potential, pressure need to be adjusted so that the crater produced by sputtering is flat bottom that is, so that the depth analyzed over the crater area is uniform. Only two can be directly controlled at once, while the third must be allowed to vary. The cell is typically filled with neon, but other gases can also be used. In an arc discharge , electrons leave the cathode by thermionic emission and field emission , and the gas is ionized by thermal means. The solution is drawn in through a small tube and taken to the nebulizer where the solution is broken up into a fine mist this is similar to an aerosol can. Samples for this type of glow discharge are in the form of a 1 2 mm diameter pin with about five millimeters left exposed to the plasma, or a pressed disk that is shielded to allow only the top surface of the sample to be exposed to the plasma. In the negative glow region, however, excitation and ionization will occur. Once outside the negative field, the attraction from the positive field begins to accelerate these electrons toward the anode. The hollow cathode lamp, shown in Figure 3C, is probably the most familiar glow discharge that is used in chemical analysis. This final process is called atomization. Their mass identifies the type of atoms and their quantity reveals the amount of that element in the sample. The spectrometer includes the spectral sorting device monochromator and the detector. In a glow discharge, the carrier generation process reaches a point where the average electron leaving the cathode allows another electron to leave the cathode. I-K region: arc discharge; large amounts of radiation produced. As the current is increased, more of the cathode surface is involved in the glow.

A laboratory flame photometer that uses a propane operated flame atomizer Liquid or dissolved samples are typically used with flame atomizers.

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Atomic absorption spectroscopy